Gorfeynta Buugga “Guns, Germs and Steel” – Jared Diamond – Qeybta 1-aad

Editorial Science & Tech

Buugga “Guns, Germs, and Steel” (Qoriga, Jeermiska iyo Birta), Jared Diamond waxa uu ku qeexayaa aragtida qaddarta juqraafiyeed, oo sheegaysa in farqiga u dhexeeya horumarka bulshooyinka uu la xiriiro fursadaha juqraafi (deegaan, cimilo iyo ilo dhaqaale) ee ummaduhu ka helaan deegaannadooda.

Buugga waxa uu jawaab u raadinayaa sababta ay reer Yurub u noqdeen kuwa militari ahaan, dhaqaale ahaan, iyo teknoolojiyad ahaan kaga hormaray bulshooyinka kale ee dunida 500-kii oo sano ee la soo dhaafay.

Qeybta koowaad ee buugga, Diamond waxa uu sharaxayaa isbadalladii waaweynaa ee taariikhda dhow ee insaanka isagoo xoogga saaraya farqiyada u dhexeeya xadaaradihii kala duwanaa ee dunida soo maray.

Nus malyuun sano ka hor, insaankii ugu horeeyay ayaa waxa uu ka soo baxay Afrika, waxa uuna u soo haajiray dhulalka kala duwan ee qaaradaha dunida isagoo baadi goobaya ilo cunto iyo nololeed oo ka duwan kuwii uu haystay. Ku dhawaad 11,000 sano ka hor, qaar ka mid ah dadka ayaa waxa ay billaabeen beerasho, arrintan ayaa waxa ay ahayd mid saamayn weyn ku yeelata habraaca taariikhda dadka.

Cahdigii beerashada waxa uu ka soo billowday dhulalkii xadaaradaha qadiimiga ahaa ee Mesobotaamiya iyo dhulalka Shiinaha. Sababa keenay in beerashadu ay ka billaabato dhulalkan ayaa loo aaneeyaa yaraanshaha miraha la gurubsado ee dhulalkaasi.

Si ay dhibaatadaasi u maareeyaan dadyowgii dunida waxa ay bilaabeen in ay tijaabooyin beerasho ku sameeyaan geedihii yaraa ee ay haysteen ama kuwii ay u arkayeen in ka heli karaan wax soo saar fiican una fududeyd kaydintooda.

Waxyaabaha u suura geliyay in xadaaradihii Mesobotaamiya ay beerashada uga hormaraan dadyowgii kale ee dunida qeybaheeda kale ku noolaa waxaa ka mid ah tayada deegaanka ay ku noolaayeen sida dhul bacrin ah, xayawaano sid fudud loo dhaqan karo, iyo dalagyo cunidda ku habboon oo hodan ku ah nafaqo jirka insaanka si ku filan u quudin karta.

Bulshooyinka ku noolaa qeybaha kale ee dunida waqti dheer ayay ku qaadatay in ay ka soo gudbaan ugaarsiga iyo ururiska miraha oo u soo gudbaan beerashada. Si kasta ha ahaatee, khibradihii beerashada ee xadaaradihii Mesobotaamiya waxa ay si fudud ugu gudbeen dhulalkii la deriska ahaa ee bariga iyo galbeedka ka xigay.

Diamond, waxa uu ku doodayaa, in aragtiyaha iyo badeecooyinka ay aad u fudud tahay in ay isaga gudbaan bari iyo galbeed marka loo barbardhigo waqooyi iyo koonfur.

Maadaama dhulka uu u wareego bari-galbeed, dhulalka sida jiifka ah (bari-galbeed) deriska u ah waxa ay badanaa wadaagaan cimilo isu dhow, halka kuwa deriska ku ah joogga (waqooyi-galbeed) ay duruufaha cimilo aad ugu kala duwan yihiin, taasoo keenaysa in ay adkaato in dalagyada iyo xoolaha la dhaqdo ay labada cimilo ee kala duwan si fudud ugu noolaadaan.

Sidaa daraaddeed, raadadka arkiyoolojiyada waxa ay tilmaamayaan in horumarkii beerashada uu marka hore u baahay bari ilaa galbeed ka hor inta uusan isaga gudbin waqooyi ilaa koonfur.

La soco qormooyinka soo socda …

Waxaa Qoray: Hassan Abdi Hassan

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